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Background[ edit ] North Yemen in orange and South Yemen in blue before North Yemen became a state after the collapse of the Ottoman Empire in November Adenin South Yemen, was administered as part of British Indiaand in became a British colony in its own right.
The larger part of South Yemen was a British protectorateeffectively under colonial control. In one of the many proxy conflicts of the Cold Wara South Yemeni insurgency with the support and backing of the Soviet Union led by two nationalist parties revolted, causing the United Kingdom to first unify the area and in to withdraw from its former colony.
Following the North Yemen Civil Warthe north established a republican government that included tribal representatives. It enjoyed modest oil revenues and remittances from its citizens working in the oil-rich Arab states of the Persian Gulf.
Its population in the s was estimated at 12 million as opposed to 3 million in South Yemen. Fighting was short-lived and the conflict led to the October 28, Cairo Agreement, which set forth a plan to unify the two countries.
This conflict was also short-lived. Unification[ edit ] The Republic of Yemen was declared on 22 May A month transitional period for completing the unification of the two political and economic systems was set. A presidential council was jointly elected by the member Yemen Arab Republic advisory council and the member People's Democratic Republic of Yemen presidium.
The presidential council appointed a Prime Minister, who formed a Cabinet. There was also a seat provisional unified parliament, consisting of members from the north, members from the south, and 31 independent members appointed by the chairman of the council.
A unity constitution was agreed upon in May and ratified by the populace in May It affirmed Yemen's commitment to free elections, a multiparty political system, the right to own private property, equality under the law, and respect of basic human rights.
Parliamentary elections were held on April 27, International groups assisted in the organization of the elections and observed actual balloting. The new parliament represented the North strongly. The YSP, though it had won the most seats in voting in the less-populated south, was considered a minor part of the new coalition government.
Islaah was invited into the ruling coalition, and the presidential council was altered to include one Islaah member.
As a new oil field was brought online in the Hadhramaut Governorate in the south, southerners began to feel that their land, home to the majority of the country's oil reserves, was illegally appropriated as part of a planned conspiracy by the rulers of North Yemen.
Remittances from these workers, an important part of the economy, were slashed and many Yemenis were placed in refugee camps while the government decided where to house them and how to re-integrate them into the workforce.
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Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. May Main article: Haidar Abu Bakr al-Attasthe former Southern Prime Minister continued to serve as the Yemen's Prime Ministerbut his government was ineffective due to political infighting.
Continuous negotiations between northern and southern leaders resulted in the signing of the document of pledge and accord in AmmanJordan on February 20, Despite this, clashes intensified until civil war broke out in early May Significantly, one of the institutions that had not yet unified was the military arms of both nations.
Southern leaders seceded and established the Democratic Republic of Yemen DRY on 21 Maybut the new state was not recognized by the international community.
Ali Nasir Muhammadthe exiled South Yemen leader, assisted military operations against the secessionists. Other resistance quickly collapsed and thousands of southern leaders and military went into exile.
In the aftermath of the civil war, Yemeni Socialist Party leaders within Yemen reorganized the party and elected a new politburo in July However, the party remained disheartened and without its former influence. Islaah held a party convention in September The General People's Congress did the same in June Inamendments to the unity constitution eliminated the presidential council.
The constitution provided that henceforth the President is to be elected by popular vote from at least two candidates selected by the legislature.
Aftermath[ edit ] Adopting a Western style governmental system, Yemen held its first direct presidential elections in Septemberelecting President Ali Abdullah Saleh to a 5-year term in what were generally considered free and fair elections[ citation needed ].
Yemen held its second multiparty parliamentary elections in April Constitutional amendments adopted in the summer of extended the presidential term by 2 years, thus moving the next presidential elections to Yemeni unification took place on May 22, , when the area of the People's Democratic Republic of Yemen (also known as South Yemen) was united with the Yemen Arab Republic (also known as North Yemen), forming the Republic of Yemen (known as simply Yemen).
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