Shop What is Solid Waste Management? Solid waste management is a term that is used to refer to the process of collecting and treating solid wastes.
See Article History Solid-waste management, the collecting, treating, and disposing of solid material that is discarded because it has served its purpose or is no longer useful. Improper disposal of municipal solid waste can create unsanitary conditions, and these conditions in turn can lead to pollution of the environment and to outbreaks of vector-borne disease—that is, diseases spread by rodents and insects.
The tasks of solid-waste management present complex technical challenges. They also pose a wide variety of administrative, economic, and social problems that must be managed and solved.
Historical background Early waste disposal In ancient cities, wastes were thrown onto unpaved streets and roadways, where they were left to accumulate. It was not until bce in Athens that the first known law forbidding this practice was established.
At that time a system for waste removal began to evolve in Greece and in the Greek-dominated cities of the eastern Mediterranean.
In ancient Romeproperty owners were responsible for cleaning the streets fronting their property. But organized waste collection was associated only with state-sponsored events such as parades. Disposal methods were very crude, involving open pits located just outside the city walls.
As populations increased, efforts were made to transport waste farther out from the cities.
After the fall of Rome, waste collection and municipal sanitation began a decline that lasted throughout the Middle Ages. Near the end of the 14th century, scavengers were given the task of carting waste to dumps outside city walls. But this was not the case in smaller towns, where most people still threw waste into the streets.
It was not until that every city in England was required to have an official scavenger. Toward the end of the 18th century in America, municipal collection of garbage was begun in Boston, New York Cityand Philadelphia. Waste disposal methods were still very crude, however.
Garbage collected in Philadelphia, for example, was simply dumped into the Delaware River downstream from the city. Developments in waste management A technological approach to solid-waste management began to develop in the latter part of the 19th century.
Watertight garbage cans were first introduced in the United States, and sturdier vehicles were used to collect and transport wastes. A significant development in solid-waste treatment and disposal practices was marked by the construction of the first refuse incinerator in England in By the beginning of the 20th century, 15 percent of major American cities were incinerating solid waste.
Even then, however, most of the largest cities were still using primitive disposal methods such as open dumping on land or in water. Technological advances continued during the first half of the 20th century, including the development of garbage grinders, compaction trucks, and pneumatic collection systems.
By mid-century, however, it had become evident that open dumping and improper incineration of solid waste were causing problems of pollution and jeopardizing public health. As a result, sanitary landfills were developed to replace the practice of open dumping and to reduce the reliance on waste incineration.
In many countries waste was divided into two categories, hazardous and nonhazardous, and separate regulations were developed for their disposal.
Landfills were designed and operated in a manner that minimized risks to public health and the environment. New refuse incinerators were designed to recover heat energy from the waste and were provided with extensive air pollution control devices to satisfy stringent standards of air quality.
Modern solid-waste management plants in most developed countries now emphasize the practice of recycling and waste reduction at the source rather than incineration and land disposal. Solid-waste characteristics Composition and properties The sources of solid waste include residential, commercial, institutional, and industrial activities.
Certain types of wastes that cause immediate danger to exposed individuals or environments are classified as hazardous; these are discussed in the article hazardous-waste management.
All nonhazardous solid waste from a community that requires collection and transport to a processing or disposal site is called refuse or municipal solid waste MSW. Refuse includes garbage and rubbish.
Garbage is mostly decomposable food waste; rubbish is mostly dry material such as glass, paper, cloth, or wood. Garbage is highly putrescible or decomposable, whereas rubbish is not.
Trash is rubbish that includes bulky items such as old refrigerators, couches, or large tree stumps. Trash requires special collection and handling.
Another type of solid waste, perhaps the fastest-growing component in many developed countries, is electronic wasteor e-waste, which includes discarded computer equipment, televisions, telephones, and a variety of other electronic devices.
In e-waste made up 5 percent of the total solid waste stream, and the United Nations Environment Programme estimated that developed countries would triple their output of e-waste by Concern over this type of waste is escalating.
Leadmercuryand cadmium are among the materials of concern in electronic devices, and governmental policies may be required to regulate their recycling and disposal. Solid-waste characteristics vary considerably among communities and nations. American refuse is usually lighter, for example, than European or Japanese refuse.
In the United States paper and paperboard products make up close to 40 percent of the total weight of MSW; food waste accounts for less than 10 percent.Comparing Solid Waste Management in the World’s Cities.
Ljiljana Rodic, Wageningen University, Wageningen, Netherlands ‘modern waste management’ largely defined in engineering terms was – a technical present key indicators and key narratives about the waste management policies and. For sustainable solid waste management in developing countries, human resource development should always be part of the external support package.
Without local human resources, a collaborative project initiated by external support will not be able to continue. “Solid Waste Management in the World’s Cities” thing else seems less important.
removal, treatment, and management of solid waste are two of the most vital urban environmental services. While other essential utilities and infrastructure like energy. Modern solid-waste management plants in most developed countries now emphasize the practice of recycling and waste reduction at the source rather than incineration and land disposal.
Solid-waste characteristics Composition and properties. The sources of solid waste include residential, commercial, institutional, and industrial activities. Solid waste management (SWM) includes all activities that seek to minimize health, environmental, and aesthetic impacts of solid waste.
In urban areas, especially in the rapidly urbanizing cities of the developing world, problems and issues of municipal solid waste management (MSWM) are of immediate importance. management of solid waste due to its effect on both public and environmental health.
Solid waste management (SWM) has a long and convoluted history (Nathanson, ). Systems of SWM can trace their roots all the way back to ancient times.
One of the first instances of waste management occurred in the 4th century A.D. with the Ancient Greeks.