Germany is the first port-of-call in any study of the origins of World War I. Germany before World War I was imperialistic, militaristic and autocratic, a nation struggling to assert its place in the world. In Germany had been a unified state for less than half a century. Prior to she had been nothing more than a cluster of 25 German-speaking states, city-states and duchies, sandwiched between France, Russia and the North Sea coast.
Internet Consumption minutes per day: This importance is all the more impressive when one considers that infollowing the defeat of Germany in World War II, the media were non-existent and had subsequently to be revived during a period of austerity and hardship.
The evolution of the media in Germany in the post war years was heavily conditioned by the political evolution of the country. On October 3,the two Germanys were reunited under the constitution of the United German Peoples, and on March 15, the four post-war powers overseeing Germany relinquished all occupation rights.
The effect on the population was to unite the 16 million East Germans with the 64 million West Germans.
The West German media virtually extinguished the existing East German media. For example, the most widely circulated newspaper controlled by the East German regime, the Neues Deutschland went from a circulation of over 1 million to underin less than one year.
The incentive for West German media to capture this market was certainly present, for in a country of 16 million persons over 10 million read one or more of three-dozen newspapers on the market, notwithstanding strict government censorship at the time. Similarly television and radio programming was highly controlled in East Germany, and upon reunification East German television shrank, in large part because it was possible for East Germans to receive television signals from the west during the socialist era and upon reunification they continued to view programming to which they had already been exposed and which they apparently desired.
In the early s, newspapers and television programs produced in the former West Germany dominate the media landscape of Germany. General Description The target for the German media is a highly literate, affluent population that takes its media seriously.
The population in Germany is highly urbanized with 87 percent of the people residing in cities and 13 percent living in rural areas. Since over 90 percent of the population is ethnic German speaking the German language, German-language newspapers predominate.
However, other groups live in Germany, Turkish and Balkan people, for example. The remarkable economic growth of the German economy in the late s and early s necessitated the importation of labor, and Turkish workers were actively recruited as gastarbeiter guest workers to work in German industry.
As of there are some 2. To meet their media needs, three Turkish newspapers are printed in Germany and seven Turkish TV programs are obtainable by satellite with one additional television program carried by cable. In addition, Turkish newspapers printed in Turkey are available. After the Balkan war between andalmost one million refugees from the fighting re-located in Germany, by far the biggest recipient of Balkan refugees.
Finally, the provision in the German constitution that recognizes ethnic Germans as those individuals who have families who had homes in Germany at any time has facilitated the emigration of many ethnic Germans from as far away as Russia and Central Asia.
Many of these people are descendents of individuals who immigrated to Russia during the time of the reign of the German-born Russian queen, Catherine the Great, as long ago as the mid-eighteenth century.
Many media professionals identified the growing need for publications and programming in the language of these recent immigrants which at the present is met by three newspapers, KontaktVostochniji Ekspresseand Russkaja Germanijaand Deutsch Wellethe multi-language German national radio network.
However, many observers believe there is a market for additional ethnic media. In general the quality of German journalism is high. Journalistic traditions in Germany may be traced as far back as the Weimar Republic during which time reporting was considered less important than the work of high-minded, highly articulate, and erudite editors and copywriters.
Thus journalism was not at this time a dynamic profession. Since then the press in Germany has been independent, vocal, and respected, and much of its excellence stems from this respect for excellent, learned writing.
Another part of German journalistic tradition derive from the immediate post-war period when the occupying forces, particularly the United States and Great Britain, sent a large number of reporters as press officers to Germany to guide journalism and in particular teach ways to gather news objectively.
Politically it may be said that the German media cover a narrower part of the political spectrum than media in other western countries. This is generally explained by the desire of the German press to avoid political extremes, both the right characteristic of the Nazi regime and the left-wing positions characteristic of socialism or communism.
In there were "independent publishing units" or businesses publishing a total of newspapers that had a total circulation of However, the penetration of daily newspapers in the marketplace is Notwithstanding these declines in readership, with a population of over 82 million persons, Germany has a readership that is among the largest in the world.
This size makes it the fifth most popular newspaper in the world.
It is a tabloid newspaper of twelve to sixteen pages published Monday through Saturday with big letters, simple messages, often featuring female nudity on the cover or inside the front page and is the most sensational of the German newspapers.
A typical headline might read: Many Germans indicate they buy it for speed of reading, television listings, and a reasonable sports section.
Bild Zeitung publishes regional editions and is generally right of center in its political orientation. In contrast, Frankfurter Allegemeine Zeitung has significantly fewer readers approximatelybut is widely known and respected both in Germany and internationally where it can be found in countries.
Read by the German business and political elite, it is considered one of the top newspapers in the world. Most newspapers appear as morning editions, but there are evening editions of some publications, for example, Frankfurter Rundschau-Abend "evening,"The lengths of German newspapers vary throughout the week as various days have different topical supplements.Railways brought the German states within hours of one another and economic development made Germany one of the leading industrial powers of the time.
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After Germany’s defeat, the occupying powers immediately decentralized radio to the länder (states) and encouraged regional, cultural, and news content. These stations were supervised in part by elected advisory councils of local citizens.