A Year of Racial Tension The last year has been a watershed moment across the nation in the relationship between law enforcement and communities of color. I clearly remember, almost exactly a year ago, watching images on my television of Ferguson burning. Tension and mistrust between law enforcement and minority communities that have been smoldering for generations have caught fire, sometimes explosively, throughout the nation.
Bring fact-checked results to the top of your browser search. Greece formally became a sovereign state, and the Greeks became the first of the subject peoples of Leadership and nation building Ottoman Empire to gain full independence.
Greece under Otto of Wittelsbach The sovereignty of the small Greek state was not absolute, despite gaining independence from the Ottoman Empire, and the great powers, which retained certain ill-defined rights of intervention, determined that Greece should become a monarchy.
Because he was still a minor, the great powers determined that, until Otto came of age, the country was to be ruled by three Bavarian regents while the army was to be composed of Bavarians.
The legal and educational systems were thus heavily influenced by German and French models, as was the church settlement ofwhich ended the traditional authority of the ecumenical patriarch and subjected ecclesiastical affairs to civil control. Even after the formal ending of the regency inthe Bavarian presence remained strong and was increasingly resented by those who had fought for independence.
These various strands of discontent coalesced in the military coup of September Otto was forced to grant a constitution promulgated inwhich was a liberal document by the standards of the day, providing for virtually universal manhood suffrage although women were barred from voting until as late as The attempt to implant a liberal constitutional democracy onto an essentially premodern, traditional society that had evolved in quite a different fashion from those of western Europe gave rise to tensions both within the political system and in the relations between state and society, which have carried on into modern times.
Rouspheti the reciprocal dispensation of favourspatronage, manipulation, and, at times, outright force continued to characterize the politics of the postconstitutional period.
This was a visionary nationalist aspiration that was to dominate foreign relations and, to a significant extent, to determine the domestic politics of the Greek state for much of the first century of its independent existence.
If the expression was new inthe concept was deeply rooted in the Greek popular psyche, nurtured by the prophecies and oracles that had kept hopes of eventual emancipation from the Turkish yoke alive and real during the dark centuries of the Tourkokratia.
The Great Idea envisaged the restoration of the Orthodox Christian Byzantine Empirewith its capital once again established in Constantinople, which would be achieved by incorporating within the bounds of a single state all the areas of Greek settlement in the Middle East. The University of Athens attracted people from all parts of the Greek world to be trained as students and apostles of Hellenism.
Greece hoped to profit from the Crimean War —56 fought between Russia—the only sovereign Orthodox power—and the Ottoman Empire and its British and French allies. The manipulation of the constitution had alienated a younger generation of politicians who had not been directly involved in the war of independence.
Otto had also still not converted to the Orthodox church, nor had he an heir. The king was driven into exile following a coup in and spent the rest of his days in exile in Bavaria. Reform, expansion, and defeat The downfall of King Otto forced the great powers to search for a new sovereign who could not be drawn from their own dynasties.
To mark the beginning of the new reign, Britain ceded to Greece the Ionian Islandsover which it had exercised a protectorate since —the first accession of territory to the Greek state since independence. Political modernization A new constitution in amplified the democratic freedoms of the constitution, although the sovereign retained substantial, and somewhat vaguely defined, powers in foreign policy.
However, the realities of politics remained much as before, with numerous elections and even more frequent changes of administration as politicians formed short-lived coalitions, jockeying for power in the disproportionately large parliament.
In a decisive step was taken toward political modernization when King George acknowledged that he would entrust the government to the political leader that demonstrated the confidence of a majority of the deputies in parliament. During the last quarter of the 19th century the kaleidoscopic coalitions of earlier years gave way to a two-party system in which power alternated between two men: Extension of Greek borders If Britain had hoped to suppress irredentist enthusiasm by ceding the Ionian Islands, it was sorely mistaken.
In the second extension of the territory of the independent state came into being, like the first—the cession of the Ionian Islands—as a result of mediation by the great powers rather than of armed conflict.
Inagain as part of the Berlin settlement, the island of Cypruswith its largely Greek population, came under British administration but remained formally under Ottoman sovereignty. The island was annexed by Britain inafter the Ottoman Empire entered World War I on the side of the Central Powers, and became a crown colony in Rectification of frontiers The incorporation of Thessaly brought the northern frontier of Greece to the borders of Macedoniawhich, with its mixed population of Greeks, BulgariansSerbs, Albanians, Turks, Vlachs, and Roma Gypsieswas characterized by a great deal of ethnic complexity.
It also brought Greece into contention with Serbia and Bulgaria, both of which also looked to Macedonia, which remained under Ottoman rule, with covetous eyes.
The contest was initially conducted by means of ecclesiastical, educational, and cultural propaganda, but at the turn of the century rival guerrilla bands, financed by their respective governments and supported by the publicsought to achieve by terror what they could not achieve by more peaceful means.
Greece was forced to pay compensation and to accept the adjustments made to its frontier. Another humiliation sovereign Greece faced was the installation of an international financial commission to oversee the repayment of its substantial external debts. Emigration Military endeavours compounded serious economic problems, which culminated in national bankruptcy in Economic difficulties were primarily responsible for the great wave of emigrationprincipally from the Peloponnese to the United Statesthat characterized the late 19th and early 20th centuries.
About one-sixth of the entire population participated in this great exodusthe vast majority being male. The early emigrants had little intention of settling permanently overseas, though few ever returned to their homeland.
Allies and the reinvigoration of the ill-constructed state and economy were the necessary prerequisites for a successful military threat. Some 50 amendments to the constitution were enacted; provision was made for land reform; innovations were made in the educational system; and legislation benefiting the working population was introduced.
However, these moderately reformist policies inhibited the development of the powerful agrarian and socialist movements that developed elsewhere in the Balkans. British naval and French military missions were brought in to overhaul the armed forces.Click Here to Apply for #LwC Today!
JLUSA believes that America’s most challenging barrier to expansive, systemic criminal and juvenile justice reform is the absence of clear and consistent leadership by those who have been directly affected by our failed criminal justice policies. Chinua Achebe, notwithstanding that he never won the Nobel Prize for literature, remains, for me, the most significant African writer of the .
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-- Will Rogers When Chad Smith became Principal Chief. Leadership is both a research area and a practical skill encompassing the ability of an individual or organization to "lead" or guide other individuals, teams, or entire organizations.
 Specialist literature debates various viewpoints, contrasting Eastern and Western approaches to leadership, and also (within the West) United States versus European approaches. The Leadership Council oversees the work of the Sustainable Development Solutions Network.
It comprises eminent experts on sustainable development from academia, business, civil . Over the past two decades, state-building has developed into becoming an integral part and even a specific approach to peacebuilding by the international community.
Observers across the political and academic spectra have come to see the state-building approach as the preferred strategy to peacebuilding in a number of high-profile conflicts, including the Israeli-Palestinian, Bosnia, Iraq, and.