Saw themselves as little parliaments, checked governor power b The Colonies Divided i Colonists often felt stronger ties to England than to one another. Yet cnxns still forged, Atlantic settlement created roads, trade, colonial postal service ii Loath to cooperate even against French and Indian threat.
In the case of the 10 papers they surveyed, the authors had just published results based on the requested dataset. He questioned how authors could publish a study without having a clean and well-annotated dataset, which could easily be distributed on request.
Other arguments against sharing data had more validity, Vickers acknowledged. For example, career advancement in an academic setting depends on the ability of investigators to generate publications from data they might have spent years collecting.
Sharing Clinical Research Data: The National Academies Press. In response to his frustrations with the current problems with data access, Vickers wrote an essay in the New York Times, drawing attention to this cultural barrier and pointing out Chapter 4 key terms moral obligation that researchers have to share data that has been collected from patients who volunteered to participate in clinical trials, in part, for the benefit of future patients.
In addition to the essay, Vickers also helped publish a study on data sharing by authors who publish in Public Library of Science PLoS journals.
Rehnborg Chair in Disease Prevention at Stanford University, also discussed the inadequacy of current incentives and policies promoting data sharing. A study by Ioannidis and his colleagues on data-sharing policies at the 50 scientific journals with the highest impact factors found that most have policies in place for sharing data and making the data available Alsheikh-Ali et al.
However, when the authors sampled 10 papers from each journal, they found that few authors had actually deposited the data summarized in the paper. Fears Regarding Misuse of Shared Data Another common concern raised during the workshop, particularly by those in industry, was how clinical data will be reused once they become more accessible.
One fear was that data will be misused or misinterpreted if, for example, too little attention is paid to how the data were collected and analyzed or to the nature of the patient population. Such misinterpretations can be published outside the peer-reviewed literature so that standard quality controls do not apply.
I do not think we should be afraid of that future. It is a problem that we are going to have to grapple with. Trust is the foundation for all productive relationships and is at the heart of making data-sharing efforts happen.
Researchers and organizations must be able to trust each other and participants must be able to trust those same researchers and organizations. But, she asked, how does one build trust? In research, institutions have relied heavily on contracts to help manage trust relationships.
These arrangements may be necessary, but they are insufficient, said Edwards. Trust also needs to be relational, with contracts serving as a way to punctuate what has already been agreed to rather than the sum total of how a relationship will work.
Different elements enter into relationship trust. In some cases, people share core values and interests or are committed to a common cause.
Relational trust can be built on transparent and consistent or logical rules, and trust can Page 25 Share Cite Suggested Citation: However, Edwards pointed to several developments that can allow rewards, acknowledgment, and attribution to coexist in a more open research system.
The old models of medical research where data are kept close to our chest are beginning to crumble, she said, and new models can be built that still promote competition, but in a more open research space. These principles also can be applied to the emergence of more open research systems.
For example, respect for persons can be embodied in both partnerships and communication. As a concrete example, Edwards mentioned the simple step of thanking research participants. Thus, data-sharing policies can provide a scaffolding, but the research community needs to set standards of excellence and strive to meet those standards.w Key Concept II.A has been clarified to specify Ashanti and Mughal empires.
w Key Concept II.D has been removed and the content incorporated into II.A–C. This crossword puzzle, “ Chapter 4 Science Key Terms, ” was created using the Crossword Hobbyist puzzle maker.
The Role of Key Terms and Key Facts in Legal Research. CHAPTER SUMMARY. The first step in part B of the legal research and analysis process is preliminary preparation, which is gathering information about the case from the case file.
Chapter 4 Key Terms study guide by joshsmith72 includes 42 questions covering vocabulary, terms and more. Quizlet flashcards, activities and games help you improve your grades.
Glossary of Key Terms This glossary provides definitions of many of the terms used in the guides to conducting qualitative and quantitative research.
The definitions were developed by members of the research methods seminar (E) taught by Mike Palmquist in the s and s. Chapter 4: Grammar Concepts: Parts of Speech Parts of Speech. We want to get right into translating and reading Old English sentences, but first we need to review a few basic grammatical concepts.