Google is designed to crawl and index the Web efficiently and produce much more satisfying search results than existing systems. The prototype with a full text and hyperlink database of at least 24 million pages is available at http: Search engines index tens to hundreds of millions of web pages involving a comparable number of distinct terms. They answer tens of millions of queries every day.
Page association of the exposure with some other factor s that influences the outcome under study.
Confounding variable A variable that can cause or prevent the outcome of interest, is not an intermediate variable, and is associated with the factor under investigation. Contingency table A tabular cross-classification of data such that subcategories of one characteristic are indicated horizontally in rows and subcategories of another characteristic are indicated vertically in columns.
The simplest contingency table is the fourfold or two-by-two table analyzed by using the chi-square statistic. Three- and higher-dimensional tables are analyzed by using log-linear models.
Continual reassessment method An approach that applies Bayesian inference to determine the maximum tolerated dose in a phase I trial. The method begins by assuming a logistic regression model for the dosetoxicity relationship and a prior distribution for the parameters.
After each patient's toxicity result becomes available, the posterior distribution of the parameters is recomputed and used to estimate the probability of toxicity at each of a series of dose levels. Control group Subjects with whom comparison is made in a case-control study, randomized controlled trial, or some other variety of epidemiological study.
Controlled trial A phase III clinical trial in which an experimental treatment is compared with a control treatment, the latter being either the current standard treatment or a placebo. Control statistics Statistics calculated from sample values X1, X2.
Correlation The degree to which variables change together. Correlation coefficient An index that quantifies the linear relationship between a pair of variables. A value of Appendix g sequential and selection process control structure indicates the lack of any linear relationship between two variables.
Correlation matrix A square, symmetric matrix with rows and columns corresponding to variables in which the off-diagonal elements are correlations between pairs of variables and the elements on the main diagonal are unity.
Cost-benefit analysis An economic analysis in which the costs of medical care and the benefits of reduced loss of net earnings due to the preven- Page Share Cite Suggested Citation: The National Academies Press. The general rule for the allocation of funds in a cost-benefit analysis is that the ratio of marginal benefit the benefit of preventing an additional case to marginal cost the cost of preventing an additional case should be equal to or greater than 1.
Cox's proportional hazards model A method that allows the hazard function to be modeled on a set of explanatory variables without making restrictive assumptions about the dependence of the hazard function on time.
Estimates of the parameters in the model, i. Critical region The values of a test statistic that lead to rejection of a null hypothesis. The size of the critical region is the probability of obtaining an outcome belonging to this region when the null hypothesis is true, i. See also acceptance region.
Critical value The value with which a statistic calculated from sample data is compared to determine whether a null hypothesis should be rejected.
The value is related to the particular significance level chosen. Cross-validation The division of data into two subsets of approximately equal size, one of which is used to estimate the parameters in some model of interest and the other of which is used to assess whether the model with these parameter values fits adequately.
Cumulative frequency distribution A listing of the sample values of a variable together with the proportion of the observations less than or equal to each value.
Decision analysis An approach that involves identification of all available choices and the potential outcomes of each in a series of decisions that must be made about aspects of patient care: The range of choices can be plotted on a decision tree, where at each branch or decision node the probabilities of each outcome are displayed.
Assessment of the use of P-capping to control sediment P release in two eutrophic lakes in England iii Evidence at the Environment Agency Scientific research and analysis underpins everything the Environment Agency does. Process Flowchart (Process Flow Mapping) Process Flowchart Diagram or PFD is also known as the system flow diagram or SFD. The main reason of using process flowchart is to show the relation between major parts of the system. Feb 04, · Sequential Change-Point Detection in Continuous Time When the Post-Change Drift is Unknown, the posterior process (e.g.,) ceases to become a sufficient statistic, Data-Efficient Quickest Change Detection with On–Off Observation Control, Sequential Analysis
Decision function A concept used in decision analysis that tells the experimenter how to conduct the statistical aspects of an experiment and what action to take for each possible outcome. See also loss function. Decision tree A graphical representation of the alternatives available at each stage in the process of decision making, where decision options are represented as branches and subsequent possible outcomes are represented as further branches.
For example, in a contingency table it is one less than the number of row categories multiplied by one less than the number of column categories. Also used to refer to a parameter of various families of distributions, such as chi-square, Student's t, and F distributions. Dependent variable A variable whose value is dependent on the effect of another variable s —an independent variable s —in the relationship under study.
In statistics, it is the variable predicted by a regression equation. Descriptive statistics A general term for methods of summarizing and tabulating data that make their main features more transparent, for example, calculating means and variances and plotting histograms.Studies linear integrated circuits for industrial applications, motors, industrial control devices, power control circuits, transducers, industrial process control, and sequential process control.
Part I of II. Associate Program Material Appendix G Sequential and Selection Process Control Structure In the following example, the second line of the table specifies that tax due on a salary of $2, is $ plus 16% of excess salary over $1, (that is, 16% of $).
Sequential sensor selection arises in many security and healthcare diagnostic systems.
In these applications infrastructure and generally harder to control/modify ness, we describe these problems in Appendix A). Later we will brieﬂy describe extensions to tree-structures. Sequential Function Chart of Freelance ABB Automation Inc. Funct. Single Product / Single Stream Process Cell Fixed Procedures then timberdesignmag.com Levels of Batch Control: SFC timberdesignmag.com Page 8.
Short description and characterization of a sequential control Controlling sequences of motions, e.g. of a machine or installation, the chronological order is of decisive importance, as the next motion may only be started after the preceding one has been. Batch Processing with Freelance Batch Basics Three Levels doing Batch System Structure Phase Logic Interface Pricing.