The usage of antimicrobial herbal products in dentistry has been well documented in prevention of dental infection. In spite of various commercially available antimicrobial agents, the search for an effective herbal antimicrobial mouth wash still continues. Chemical drugs have unpleasant side effects and causing drug resistant microorganisms. On the other hand, herbal mouthwashes have fewer side effects and are more economic than similar chemical drugs.
Where there are still existing systems on the plant plays a vital role in health care. In developed countries, drugs that are extracted from plants are also extremely important for people, currently at least chemicals derived from plant species can be considered as important drugs for human consumption .
An antimicrobial is a compound that kills or inhibits the growth of microbes such as bacteria. This compound is said to have an antibacterial activity .
Medicinal herbs are well documented as a rich source of antimicrobial agents. A wide range of medicinal plant parts are used to extract raw drugs and possess varied medicinal properties  .
Primitive people learned by trial and error to distinguish useful plants with beneficial effects from the toxic or non-active plants, and also which combinations Antimicrobial activity thesis the plants or processing methods had to be used to gain consistent and optimal results.
This reliance on herbal medicine has proven to be effective in the treatment of long term illness namely diabetes and malaria. Also, it is well known to be preventive measure against some chronic diseases such as pneumonia since it has lesser side effects.
In addition, it is a cheaper form of medicine for lots of people . Pergularia tomentosa L, Peganum harmala L. Harmal  Peganum harmala L. It is a shrub, 0. The plant is well-known in Iran and is widely distributed and used as a medicinal plant to the Central Asia, North Africa and the Middle East.
It has also been introduced in America and Australia. Various parts of P.
Many pharmacological surveys have shown different effects of P. There were no reports about the effect of Harmal extracts on fungi and bacteria in the literature. Therefore, the present study has been initiated to investigate the antimicrobial activities of the aqueous extracts of harmal Peganum harmala plant extract against two fungi Aspergillus niger and Penicillum italicum and two bacteria E.
Materials and Methods 2. This medicinal plant was chosen based on local medicinal usage. The leaves were freed from stones, sand and dust, before kept in the labaratory where then washed with distilled water, dried, and milled into fine powder.
Aqueous extract was made using methanol alcohol, and different concentrations were prepared as follows: Harmal plant The two pathogenic antibiotics resistant bacterial isolates, Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhi S.
Effects of Harmal Extracts on Fungal Growth The impact of Harmal leaves extract on fungal growth was evaluated through determination of mycelial dry weight and radial growth according to the methods described by Abdel-Rahim et.
For determination of mycelial dry weight, potato dextrose broth PDB medium was prepared and then ml dispensed in conical flasks volume ml. Serial dilutions were prepared from the extracted solution.
Each flask was inoculated by three discs 5. After incubation mycelia were collected by filtering the culture through a Whatman No. All treatments were done in triplicates.
For determination of Harmal effect on radial growth, potato dextrose agar PDA medium was prepared and ml dispensed in conical flasks ml.
Then the extract solutions were added to each flask to obtain several dilutions 0. Each solidified medium was then inoculated centrally by a fungal growth disc cut by a sterile cork-borer No. The inoculated Petri dishes were then incubated at room temperature for 8 days and the radial growth was measured every two days.
The diameter of disc growth was measured every 48 hours by taking the average of two crossed dimensions for each disc in the Petri dish. The radial growth was then calculated as a percentage from the diameter of the glass Petri dish.
Effect of Harmal Leaves Extract on Bacterial Growth Effect of Harmal extract on the growth of the tested bacteria was determined using two methods: In this method 2ml of a standardized bacterial cell suspension 10 X of E. Sterile Whatman fiberglass discs No. Three replicates were made for each treatment.
Nutrient broth medium batches containing different concentrations of the Harmal extracts were distributed into McCartney bottles. The medium was autoclaved and each bottle was inoculated by 1 ml of the bacterial suspension. Inoculated bottles three per treatment were incubated at room temperature and the bacterial growth was measured by the dilution plate method, where 1 ml of the aqueous extract was drawn from each bottle and placed in a tube cooling to 9 ml sterile distilled water and serially diluted.
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From each dilution 0.antimicrobial e↵ect was however not investigated for any solid format of the AMP-silk proteins, which is the desirable form for many medical applications, such as coatings of implants.
Thesis antimicrobial activity medicinal plants, - Nyu thesis database. We’ve successfully helped hundreds of students around the world and try to keep it that way.
Academia Journal of Microbiology Research; Uddin. Table 1. Antibacterial activity of plant extracts of 34 species by disc diffusion method.
On the other hand, four isolates showed antimicrobial activity against all of the five pathogens, but 97 isolates did not show antimicrobial activity.
Several researchers have already reported similar antimicrobial activity of actinomycetes against various human pathogens. The antimicrobial activity of those compounds was evaluated against Gram-positive, Gram-negative fungi and bacteria.
The prospective compounds 9a-1 demonstrated higher antimicrobial activity than some known standard drugs however, the majority of the compounds demonstrated an average amount of potent antimicrobial activity. Background.
Eradication of Helicobacter pylori is an important objective in overcoming gastric diseases. Many regimens are currently available but none of them could achieve % success in eradication.
Eugenol and cinnamaldehyde that are commonly used in various food preparations are known to possess antimicrobial activity against a wide spectrum of bacteria.