Great Britain and the American Civil War.
Emperor Taizu of Song r. The establishment of this capital marked the start of the Northern Song period. He ensured administrative stability by promoting the civil service examination system of drafting state bureaucrats by skill and merit instead of aristocratic or military position and promoted projects that ensured efficiency in communication throughout the empire.
In one such project, cartographers created detailed maps of each province and city that were then collected in a large atlas.
From its inception under Taizu, the Song dynasty alternated between warfare and diplomacy with the ethnic Khitans of the Liao dynasty in the northeast and with the Tanguts of the Western Xia in the northwest.
The Song dynasty used military force in an attempt to quell the Liao dynasty and to recapture the Sixteen Prefecturesa territory under Khitan control since that was traditionally considered to be part of China proper Most parts of today's Beijing and Tianjin.
The Song were forced to provide tribute to the Khitans, although this did little damage to the Song economy since the Khitans were economically dependent upon importing massive amounts of goods from the Song. During the 11th century, political rivalries divided members of the court due to the ministers' differing approaches, opinions, and policies regarding the handling of the Song's complex society and thriving economy.
The idealist ChancellorFan Zhongyan —was the first to receive a heated political backlash when he attempted to institute the Qingli Reformswhich included measures such as improving the recruitment system of officials, increasing the salaries for minor officials, and establishing sponsorship programs to allow a wider range of people to be well educated and eligible for state service.
With the backing of Emperor Shenzong —Wang Anshi severely criticized the educational system and state bureaucracy. Seeking to resolve what he saw as state corruption and negligence, Wang implemented a series of reforms called the New Policies.
These involved land value tax reform, the establishment of several government monopoliesthe support of local militiasand the creation of higher standards for the Imperial examination to make it more practical for men skilled in statecraft to pass.
The Jurchena subject tribe of the Liao, rebelled against them and formed their own state, the Jin dynasty — During the joint attack, the Song's northern expedition army removed the defensive forest along the Song-Liao border.
Because of the removal of the previous defensive forest, the Jin army marched quickly across the North China Plain to Kaifeng.
The Jurchen conquest of North China and shift of capitals from Kaifeng to Lin'an was the dividing line between the Northern and Southern Song dynasties. After their fall to the Jin, the Song lost control of North China. Now occupying what has been traditionally known as "China Proper," the Jin regarded themselves the rightful rulers of China.
The Jin later chose earth as their dynastic element and yellow as their royal color. According to the theory of the Five Elements wuxingthe earth element follows the fire, the dynastic element of the Song, in the sequence of elemental creation.
Therefore, their ideological move showed that the Jin considered Song reign in China complete, with the Jin replacing the Song as the rightful rulers of China Proper. The western and southern borders remain unchanged from the previous map, however the north of the Qinling Huaihe Line was under control of the Jin dynasty.
The Xia dynasty's territory generally remain unchanged. In the southwest, the Song dynasty bordered by a territory about a sixth its size, Dali dynasty. Although weakened and pushed south beyond the Huai Riverthe Southern Song found new ways to bolster its strong economy and defend itself against the Jin dynasty.Northern Song in The largest territory of the Song dynasty at that period.
Southern leaders thus developed the idea of a commercial movement which advocated the creation of southern industry, expansion of transportation lines, and establishment of direct trade with Europe to cut out northern middlemen. In the Northern Hemisphere, shadows move in a clockwise or left to right direction, while they move in a counter-clockwise, or right to left, in the Southern Hemisphere.
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