Woodruff Professor of Law; Alonzo L. This Article is drawn in large part from John Witte, Jr. And I express my deep thanks to several fine scholars who helped me with various parts of this text, and the broader project from which it is drawn: Broyde, Rafael Domingo, Mark A.
Section 2 4 The Greeks in Egypt. Introduction The direct influence of Ancient Egyptian literature on Archaic Greece has never been fully acknowledged.
Greek philosophy in particular of the Classical Period has -especially since the Renaissance- been understood as an excellent standard sprung out of the genius of the Greeks, the Greek miracle.
Hellenocentrism was and still is a powerful view, underlining the intellectual superiority of the Greeks and hence of all cultures immediately linked with this Graeco-Roman heritage, such as Alexandrian JudaismEastern Christianity but also Islam via Harran and the translators.
Only recently, and thanks to the critical-historical approachhave scholars reconsidered Greek Antiquity, to discover the "other" side of the Greek spirit, with its popular Dionysian and elitist Orphic mysteries, mystical schools Pythagoraschorals, lyric poetric, drama, proze and tragedies.
Nietzsche, who noticed the recuperation of Late Hellenism by the Renaissance and the Age of Enlightenment, simplistically divided the Greek spirit into two antagonistic tendencies: For him, Apollo was a metaphor for the eternalizing ideas, for the mummification of life by concepts, good examples and a life "hereafter", "beyond" or "out there".
A life here and now, immanent and this-life. And what about Judaism? The author s of the Torah avoided the confrontation with the historical fact that Moses, although a Jew, was educated as an Egyptian, and identified Pharaoh with the Crocodile, who wants all things for himself.
It is precisely this influence of Greek thought on Judaism which triggered the emergence of revolutionary sects cf. Qumransolitary desert hermits and spirito-social communities, seeking to restore the "original" identity of the Jewish nation, as it had been embodied under Solomon and the first templeand turned against the Great Sanhedrin of the temple of Jeruzalem.
Ancient Egyptian civilization was so grand, imposing and strong, that its impact on the Greeks was tremendous. In order to try to understand what happened when these two cultures met, we must first sketch the situation of both parties.
This will allow us to make sound correspondences. All people who did not speak Greek were considered barbarians, with features that the Greeks despised. They were either loathsome tyrants, devious magicians, or dull and effeminate pleasure-seeking individuals.
But Egypt had more to offer ; like India, it was full of old and venerable wisdom. What exactly did the Greeks incorporate when visiting Egypt? They surely witnessed at the earliest in ca.
In the same passage of the Timaeus, Plato acknowledges the Egyptians seem to speak in myth, "although there is truth in it. From it, he copied the contents of the Timaeus The Greeks, and this is the hypothesis we are set to prove, linearized major parts of the Ancient Egyptian proto-rational mindset.
Alexandrian Hermetism was a Hellenistic blend of Egyptian traditions, Jewish lore and Greek, mostly Platonic, thought. Later, the influence of Ptolemaic Alexandria on all spiritual traditions of the Mediterranean would become unmistaken.
On this point, I agree with Bernal in his controversial Black Athena Far more widespread than these direct continuations, however, was the general admiration for Ancient Egypt among the educated elites. Egypt, though subordinated to the Christian and biblical traditions on issues of religion and morality, was clearly placed as the source of all 'Gentile' or secular wisdom.
Thus no one before seriously questioned either the belief that Greek civilization and philosophy derived from Egypt, or that the chief ways in which they had been transmitted were through Egyptian colonizations of Greece and later Greek study in Egypt. Recently, Bernal has advocated a "Revised Ancient Model".
According to this, the "glory that is Greece", the Greek Miracle, is the product of an extravagant mixture. The culture of Greece is somehow the outcome of repeated outside influence. According to this, Greece has received repeated outside influence both from the east Mediterranean and from the Balkans.
It is this extravagant mixture that has produced this attractive and fruitful culture and the glory that is Greece. Bernal apparently forgets that Greek recuperation is also an overtaking of ante-rationality by rationality, a leaving behind of the earlier stage of cognitive development namely mythical, pre-rational and proto-rational thought.
The Greeks had superior thought, and this "sui generis". Hence, Greek civilization cannot be seen as the outcome of an extravagant mixture.
The mixture was there because the Greeks were curious and open. They linearized the grand cultures of their day, and Egypt had been the greatest and oldest culture.
On the one hand, Greek thinking successfully escaped from the contextual and practical limitations imposed by an ante-rational cognitive apparatus unable to work with an abstract concept, and hence unable to root its conceptual framework in the "zero-point", which serves as the beginning of the normation "here and now" of all possible coordinate-axis, which all run through it cf.
Because of the Greek miracle of abstraction, rationality and ante-rationality were distinguished, equating the latter with the "barbaric" i. Although the inner sanctum of the temples of Ptah, Re and Amun must have remained closed excepts perhaps for exceptional Greeks like Pythagorasthe Greeks adapted to and rapidly assimilated Egyptian culture and its environment.
There survive a growing number of works written in Greek which demonstrate some measure of familiarity with Egypt and Egyptian thought or at least claim to have been influenced by them. The list of authors of such works is impressive: On the other hand, the Greeks had no written traditions and so no extensive treasurehouse of ante-rational, efficient knowledge no logs.I think a lot of the explanation of the time lag is that current stories serve the same function of the ancient times’ religion: I think Harry Potter serves the same role .
Comparison of the Greek Religion in the Iliad to Christianity Throughout the Iliad of Homer there can be seen many features of the Greek religion. The features of religion that appear throughout this epic poem are those that existed during the time of Homer.
R. Peterson’s fine study, The Classical World (), which includes an analysis of 43 Greek, and 32 Roman figures, is persuasive. Dr. Peterson explains that the Romans painted their death masks to preserve the color, as well as the shape, of their ancestors’ faces.
Why Two in One Flesh? The Western Case for Monogamy Over Polygamy, John Witte, Jr. Western nations can responsibly hold the line against polygamy. Against the Theory of ‘Dynamic Equivalence’ by Michael Marlowe Revised and expanded, January Introduction.
Among Bible scholars there is a school which is always inquiring into the genres or rhetorical forms of speech represented in any given passage of the Bible, and also the social settings which are supposed to be connected with these forms. At the end of the previous post I stated, “Remember that the Book of Acts describes a period when the Kingdom program with its accordant miracles and conferring of the Holy Spirit by the laying on of hands is on the wane but not yet gone, while the Age of Grace we have been discussing is still on the rise.